The pursuit of the (Latin) American dream in the time of crises: Portugal’s diplomatic and commercial changes towards the region (2005–15)

Luís A. Fretes Carreras, Marcelo Morriconi

Abstract


To overcome the global crisis, Portugal sought to internationalize its economy. Latin America, a region that grew steadily for a decade, has become a region of interest for the Iberian country. This article analyses the changes to the diplomatic and commercial schemes between both regions and explains how, when, by whom and through which strategies these relations have been modified. While Brazil continues to be the privileged partner, Portugal is strengthening its relationship with new strategic countries, primarily the components of the Pacific Alliance. As a result, the historical negative balance of trade became positive in 2012. The data show greater dynamism in commercial exchanges and political relations in recent years and the incorporation of new political actors designed to stimulate and deepen bilateral relations. Although several authors point to Portugal as a state that promotes economic diplomacy, this article suggests that what has prevailed in strengthening relations with Latin America is a commercial and business diplomacy, leaning heavily on key political actors and ‘anchor’ companies installed in the new markets. The ideological affinity of governments appears to be a determining factor in extending political and commercial ties. As other works have shown, this case study proves a positive correlation between trade/investment state agencies and diplomatic activities and the increase in bilateral trade flows.


References


Acharya, A. (2008), ‘Regional worlds in a post-hegemonic era’, 3rd Annual Garnet Conference, Bordeaux, 17–20 September, http://amitavacharyaacademic. blogspot.com/2008/10/regional-worlds-in-post-hegemonic-era.html. Accessed 3 October 2017.

Aereonoticias (2014), ‘Portugal: Inician vuelos charter a Cuba’ (‘Portugal: Start of charter flights to Cuba’), 23 July, www.aeronoticias.com.pe/~aero2008/noticiero/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=49440:port ugal-inician-vuelos-charter-a-cuba&catid=14:14&Itemid=574. Accessed 3 October 2017.

Agencia AVN (2013), ‘He perdido un amigo’ (‘I lost a friend’), La Gente Radio Primera, 10 March, http://www.radiolaprimerisima.com/noticias/137912/he-perdido-un-amigo. Accessed 20 January 2018.

AICEP (Portugal Global Trade and Investment Agency) (2012), ‘Statutes’, www.portugalglobal.pt/PT/sobre-nos/informacao-gestao/Documents/Estatutos.pdf. Accessed 7 October 2017.

—— (2016), ‘Como vender em’ (‘How to sell in’), www.portugalglobal.pt/PT/Acoes/ComoVenderEm/Paginas/Acoes_ComoVenderEm.aspx. Accessed 7 October 2017.

Almeida, T. F. F. (2015), ‘Diplomacia económica e internacionalização da economia portuguesa’ (‘Economic diplomacy and internationalization of the Portuguese economy’, Master’s dissertation, Lisbon: ISCTE-IUL, https://repositorio.iscte-iul.pt/handle/10071/11629. Accessed 25 June 2018.

Anon. (2008), ‘Chávez y Sócrates cultivan su idilio’ (‘Chavez and Socrates cultivate their idyll’), El País Internacional, 27 September, elpais.com/internacional/2008/09/27/actualidad/1222466411_850215.html. Accessed

June 2018.

—— (2012), ‘Ministério dos Negócios Estrangeiros: Decreto-Lei Nº. 229/2012’ (‘Foreign Ministry: Decree-Law 229/2012’), Diário da República, Iª série, 208, 26 October, pp. 6055–61, portugalglobal.pt/PT/sobre-nos/informacaogestao/Documents/Estatutos.pdf. Accessed 24 June 2018.

—— (2015), ‘Empresas lusas buscan alianzas con mexicanas’ (‘Portuguese companies seek alliances with Mexicans’), El Financiero, 29 June, elfinanciero.com.mx/empresas/lusas-buscan-alianzas-con-mexicanas. html. Accessed 25 June 2018.

—— (2016), ‘México destrona Angola em 2016 como maior mercado da Mota-Engil’ ( ‘Mexico dethrones Angola in 2016 as Mota-Engil’s biggest market’), SAPO Noticias, 11 May, https://noticias.sapo.ao/actualidade/artigos/mexico-destrona-angola-em-2016-como-maior-mercado-da-motaengil-antonio-mota. Accessed 25 July 2018.

Baldwin, R. (2012), ‘WTO 2.0: Global governance of supply chain trade’, Policy Insight, 64, cepr.org/sites/default/files/policy_insights/PolicyInsight64.pdf. Accessed 15 May 2016.

Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo (BID) (2014), Infrascopio 2014: Evaluando el Entorno para Asociaciones Público-Privas en América Latina y el Caribe (2014 Infrascope: Assessing the Environment for Public-Private Partnerships in Latin America and the Caribbean), Washington, DC: BID.

Banco Santander (2016), ‘Cifras del Comercio Exterior de Portugal’ (‘Portugal’s Foreign Trade Figures’), es.portal.santandertrade.com/analizar-mercados/portugal/cifras-comercio-exterior. Accessed 25 May 2017.

Baumbach, A. and Gulis,G. (2014), ‘Impact of financial crisis on selected health outcomes in Europe’, The European Journal of Public Health, 24:3, pp. 399–403.

BBC (2016), ‘Brasil: Las 4 causas del desplome de la mayor economía de América Latina’ (‘Brazil: The 4 causes of the collapse of the largest economy in Latin America’), 3 March, bbc.com/mundo/noticias/2016/03/160303_brasil_causas_del_desplome_economico_gl. Accessed 9 July 2018.

Bertonha, J. F. (2010), ‘O fim da hegemonía americana na America do Sul? Russia, China e União Europeiua como actores regionais?’ (‘The end of American hegemony in South America? Russia, China and the European Union as regional actors’), Negocios Estrangeiros, 19, pp. 121–41.

Briceño Monzón, C. A. (2011), ‘La Política Exterior de Venezuela en los Tiempos del Socialismo del Siglo XXI: Entre la autonomía y la subordinación al capitalismo global’, Cuadernos sobre Relaciones Internacionales, Regionalismo y Desarrollo, 6:12, pp. 79–103.

Câmara de Comércio e Indústria Luso-Luxemburguesa (CCILL) (n.d.), ‘Paulo Portas (MNE) quer empresas portuguesas “a facturar” na América Latina’ (‘Paulo Portas [Foreign Minister] wants Portuguese companies “to sell” in Latin America’), goo.gl/6Ldp7d. Accessed 28 June 2018.

Carneiro, A., Portugal, P. and Varejao, J. (2014), ‘Catastrophic job destruction during the Portuguese economic crisis’, Journal of Macroeconomics, 39, pp. 444–57.

Casanova, L. (2010), ‘Las multinacionales latinoamericanas en los albores de una gran oportunidad’ (‘Latin American multinationals in the dawn of a great opportunity’), RAE - Revista de Administração de Empresas, 50:4, pp.439–45, http://www.redalyc.org/articulo.oa?id=155117365008. Accessed 10 July 2018.

Castañeda, J. G. (2006), ‘Latin America’s left turn’, Foreign Affairs, May/June, https://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/south-america/2006-05-01/latinamericas-left-turn. Accessed 10 July 2018

Comisión Económica para América Latina y el Caribe (CEPAL) (2014),Balance Preliminar de las Economías de América Latina y el Caribe, 2014, (LC/G.2632-P), (Preliminary Overview of the Economies of Latin America and the Caribbean 2014, [LC/G.2632-P]), Santiago de Chile: UN, cepal.org/es/publicaciones/37344-balance-preliminar-de-las-economias-de-americalatina-y-el-caribe-2014. Accessed 9 July 2018.

—— (2015), América Latina y el Caribe y China Hacia una Nueva era de Cooperación Económica (Latin America and the Caribbean and China Towards a New Era of Economic Cooperation), Santiago: UN, goo.gl/XegpkA. Accessed 20 June 2018.

Chudnovsky, D., Kosacoff, B. and López, A. (1999), Las multinacionales latinoamericanas: Sus estrategias en un mundo globalizado (‘Latin American multinationals: Their strategies in a globalized world’), Buenos Aires: Fondo de Cultura Económica.

Comunidade dos Países de Língua Portuguesa (CPLP) (2007), ‘Estatutos’ (‘Statutes’), cplp.org/Files/Filer/.../Estatutos_CPLP_REVLIS07.pdf. Accessed 9 July 2018.

Corporación Andina de Fomento (CAF) (2010), Informe Anual 2009 (Annual Report 2009), Caracas, scioteca.caf.com/handle/123456789/294. Accessed 9 July 2018.

Dalle, D., Fossati, V. and Lavopa, F. (2013), ‘Política industrial: ¿El eslabón perdido en el debate de las cadenas globales de valor?’ (‘Industrial policy: The missing link in the debate on global value chains’), Revista Argentina de Economía Internacional, 4:2, n.pag.

EFE (2010), ‘Brasil y Portugal estrechan sus relaciones económicas y culturales’ (‘Brazil and Portugal strengthen their economic and cultural relations’), One Magazine, 20 June, https://www.onemagazine.es/noticia/2150/brasil-y-portugal-estrechan-sus-relaciones-economicas-y-culturales.html. Accessed 20 July 2018.

European Union (2016), ‘Declaración conjunta en ocasión de la inicialización del acuerdo de diálogo político y cooperación Cuba-UE: Statements by the HR/VP’ (‘Joint declaration on the occasion of the initialization of the agreement of political dialogue and Cuba-EU cooperation’), Havana, 11 March, eeas.europa.eu/headquarters/headquarters-homepage/5456_es. Accessed 20 June 2018.

Fanjul, E. (2013), ‘La diplomacia comercial y la internacionalización de la economía y la empresa’ (‘Trade diplomacy and the internationalization of the economy and business’), ARI 11, http://www.realinstitutoelcano.org/wps/portal/rielcano_es/contenido?WCM_GLOBAL_CONTEXT=/elcano/elcano_es/zonas_es/economia+internacional/ari11-2013-fanjul-diplomacia-comercial-internacionalizacion-empresa-economia. Accessed 27 July 2018.

Fondo para la Convergencia Estrutural del Mercosur (Focem) (2016), ‘El fondo para la convergencia estructural del Mercosur – Focem (2005–15)’ (‘The fund for the structural convergence of Mercosur - Focem [2005–15]’), issuu.com/divulgacionmercosur/docs/focem_web_espan__ol. Accessed 19 June 2018.

Gente, La (2013), ‘He perdido un amigo’ (‘I lost a friend’), 10 March, radiolaprimerisima.com/noticias/137912/he-perdido-un-amigo. Accessed 28 June 2018.

González Urrutia, E. (2006), ‘Las dos etapas de la política exterior de Chávez’ (‘The two stages of Chávez’s foreign policy’), Nueva Sociedad, 205, n.pag.

Hosteltur (2013), ‘Pestana abre su primer hotel en Cuba’ (‘Pestana opens its first hotel in Cuba’), 6 June, www.hosteltur.com/156190_pestana-abre-suprimer-hotel-cuba.html. Accessed 26 June 2018.

International Monetary Fund (IMF) (2016a), ‘Perspectivas Económicas Mundiales 2016’, Washington, imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2016/01/weodata/index.aspx. Accessed 20 July 2018.

—— (2016b), ‘World economic and financial surveys: World economic outlook database’, imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2016/01/weodata/index.aspx. Accessed 24 June 2018.

—— (2017), ‘América Latina y el Caribe: En Movimiento, Pero a Baja Velocidad’, Actualización de Perspectivas económicas: Las Américas, Washington, www.imf.org/es/Publications/REO/WH/Issues/2017/10/11/wreo1017. Accessed 27 July 2018.

Instituto Nacional de Estatística (INE) (2017), Estatísticas do Turismo 2016, Estatísticas oficiais, Lisboa.

IPDAL (2016), ‘Intervenção do Presidente da República no V Encontro “Triângulo Estratégico” | WWW.PRESIDENCIA.PT’, YouTube, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=exSDiMkJdT8. Accessed 10 August 2018.

Jerónimo Martins (2017) ‘Jerónimo Martins em Números: Desempenho por área de negócio’, https://www.jeronimomartins.com/pt/investidor/jeronimo-martins-em-numeros/desempenho-por-area-denegocio/#1505576165281-d1264266-f686. Accessed 27 July 2018.

Jornal Médico (2014), ‘Cooperação entre Portugal e Cuba: Regras aplicadas a médicos violam direitos fundamentais (notícia actualizada)’, 4 September, http://www.jornalmedico.pt/2014/09/04/acordo-de-cooperacao-entreportugal-e-cuba-regras-aplicadas-a-medicos-violam-direitos-fundamentais/. Accessed 10 June 2018.

Karanikolos, M., Mladovsky, P., Cylus, J., Thomson, S., Basu, S., Stuckler, D., Mackenbach, J. P. and McKee, M. (2013), ‘Financial crisis, austerity, and health in Europe’, The Lancet, 381:9874, pp. 1323–31.

Lederman, D., Olarreaga. M. and Payton, L. (2006), ‘Export promotion agencies: What works and what doesn’t?’, World Bank Policy Research, working paper 4044, Washington, DC: World Bank.

Malamud, C. (2012), ‘UE y Mercosur: Negociaciones sin futuro’ (‘EU and Mercosur: Negotiations without future’), ARI 61, realinstitutoelcano.org/wps/portal/rielcano/contenido?WCM_GLOBAL_CONTEXT=/elcano/

elcano_es/zonas_es/america+latina/ari61-2012_malamud_ue_mercosur. Accessed 3 May 2018.

Marco Trade News (2014), ‘Commercial trade between Mexico and Portugal’, 10 June, n.pag.

Mendes Leal, C. (2012), O Investimento das Empresas Portuguesas no Brasil. Uma Experiência de Diplomacia Económica? (‘Portuguese companies’ investment in Brazil: An experiment in economic diplomacy?’, CEPESE: Fronteira do Caos.

Ministerios de Negocios Estrangeiros (2016), ‘Programa de visita del Ministro de Negocios Extranjeros de Portugal a Cuba’, 24 June, http://www.portugal.gov.pt/pt/ministerios/mne/noticias/20160624-mne-cuba.aspx. Accessed 10 July 2018.

Moraña, M. (2008), ‘Negotiating the local: The Latin American “Pink Tide”, or what’s left of the left?’, in M. Moraña (ed.), Cultura y Cambio Social en América Latina (Culture and Social Change in Latin America), Madrid: Iberoamericana – Vervuert, pp. 113–34.

Moriconi, M., Fonseca, M. and Baumgarten, B. (2015), Diagnóstico das relações diplomáticas e comerciais entre Portugal e América Latina (2005–2014) (‘Diagnosis of diplomatic and trade relations between Portugal and Latin America [2005–2014])’, Lisbon: Informe CEI-IUL, Instituto Universitário de Lisboa and IPDAL.

Morillas Gómez, J. (2000), ‘La diplomacia económica: La otra mediación del Estado en el mercado’ (‘Economic diplomacy: The other mediation of the State in the market’), Boletín ICE Económico, 2664, http://www.revistasice.com/CachePDF/BICE_2664_41-44__8EE2454E0632C5A7E91D9301A77B0C56.pdf. Accessed 10 May 2018.

Mota-Engil (2016a), ‘América Latina: Um Novo Mundo em Crescimento’ (‘Latin America: A new world in growth’) Available on line: www.mota-engil.pt/ME-no-Mundo/America-Latina#l-introduction. Accessed 25 June 2018.

—— (2016b), ‘Mota-Engil no Mundo. Uma visão de futuro internacional e diversificada’, http://www.mota-engil.pt/ME-no-Mundo/America-Latina#l-introduction. Accessed 25 June 2018.

—— (2016c), ‘Ajudicação de dois contratos para melhoria de infraestruturas educativas na Colômbia’ (‘Award of two contracts to improve educational infrastructures in Colombia’), statement by Luís Silva, Porto, 28 July, web3.cmvm.pt/sdi/emitentes/docs/FR61153.pdf. Accessed 26 June 2018.

Muns Albuxech, Joaquín (2005), Lecturas de Integración Económica. La unión Europea, 3rd ed., Universitat de Barcelona, http://www.publicacions.ub.edu/refs/indices/06488.pdf. Accessed 20 April 2018.

Nitsch, V. (2007), ‘State visits and international trade’, World Economy, 30:12, pp. 1797–1816.

Observador (2014), ‘Exportações para a América Latina aumentaram 20%em cinco anos’ (‘Exports to Latin America increased 20% in five years’), 10 December, goo.gl/qaF3ti. Accessed 28 June 2018.

Panizza, F. (2009), ‘Nuevas izquierdas y democracia en América Latina’ (‘New lefts and democracy in Latin America’), Los retos de América Latina en Cambio, 85:86, n.pag.

Parlamento del Mercosur (2006), ‘Protocolo constitutive del Parlamento del Mercosur’, parlamentomercosur.org/innovaportal/file/7308/1/protocolo_es.pdf. Accessed 19 June 2018.

Parlamento Europeo (2016), ‘Fichas Técnicas sobre la Unión Europea: América Latina y el Caribe’, www.europarl.europa.eu/atyourservice/es/displayFtu.html?ftuId=FTU_5.6.2.html. Accessed 20 June 2018.

Passos Coelho, P. (2011), ‘Our plan to fix Portugal’, The Wall Street Journal, 30 March, wsj.com/articles/SB10001424052748704559904576230090187012196. Accessed 16 June 2018.

Pinheiro Guimarães, S. (2016), ‘En Brasil hubo una conspiración’ (‘In Brazil there was a conspiracy’), Página 12, 29 May, https://www.pagina12.com.ar/diario/elpais/1-300511-2016-05-29.html. Accessed 29 July 2018.

PNUD (2014), ‘Seguridad ciudadana con rostro humano’ (‘Citizen security with a human face’), Informe Regional de Desarrollo Humano 2013–2014, New York, NY: PNUD.

PORDATA (2018), ‘Balança Comercial Portugal’, https://www.pordata.pt/Portugal/Balan%C3%A7a+comercial-2594. Accessed 30 July 2018.

Queiroz, M. de (2007), ‘Unión Europea-Brasil: Un acuerdo consagrado en portugués’ (‘European Union-Brazil: An agreement enshrined in Portuguese’), Cumbres Iberoamericanas, Madrid, cumbresiberoamericanas.com/historico/principal.php?p=583. Accessed 19 July 2018.

Relea, Francesc (2008), ‘Chávez y Sócrates cultivan su idilio’, El País, 27 September, http://internacional.elpais.com/internacional/2008/09/27/actualidad/1222466411_850215.html. Accessed 20 July 2018.

Rizzi, Andrea and Blanco, Juan Carlos (2010), ‘José Sócrates es “carismático” y “le desagrada compartir el poder”’, El Pais, 13 December, https://elpais.com/diario/2010/12/13/internacional/1292194802_850215.html. Accessed 29 July 2018.

Riggirozzi, P. (2012), ‘Re-territorializando consensos: Hacia un regionalismo post-hegemónico en América Latina’ (‘Re-territorializing consensus: Towards a post-hegemonic regionalism in Latin America’), in El Regionalismo ‘Post–Liberal’ en América Latina y el Caribe: Nuevos Actores, Nuevos Temas, Nuevos Desafíos (‘Post-Liberal’ Regionalism in Latin America and the Caribbean: New Actors, New Issues, New Challenges), Buenos Aires: Anuario de la Integración Regional de América Latina y el Gran Caribe 9, pp. 129–52.

Rivera Urrutia, E. (2014), ‘Empresas multinacionales latinoamericanas: Los casos de Brasil y Chile’ (‘Latin American multinational companies: The cases of Brazil and Chile’), Políticas Públicas y Transformación Productiva, 15, publicaciones.caf.com/media/41337/politicas_publicas_empresas_multinacionales_latinoamericanas.pdf. Accessed 10 July 2018.

Rosales, O. (ed.) (2015), Globalización, Integración y comercio inclusivo en América Latina: Textos Seleccionados 2010–2014, Santiago de Chile: Naciones Unidas and CEPAL.

Rose, A. K. (2007), ‘The foreign service and foreign trade: Embassies as export promotion’, The World Economy, 30:1, pp. 22–38.

Roy, J. (2002), ‘La Unión Europea ante Cuba y Colombia: De buenas intenciones y altas esperanzas a notables contradicciones y grandes frustraciones’ (‘The European Union before Cuba and Colombia: From good intentions

and high hopes to notable contradictions and great frustrations’), América Latina Hoy, 31, pp. 33–61.

Sanahuja, J. A. (2010), ‘La construcción de una región: Suramérica y el regionalismo posliberal’ (‘The construction of a region: South America and the post-liberal regionalism’), Una Región en Construcción: UNASUR y la Integración en América del Sur (A Region under Construction: UNASUR and Integration in South America), Madrid: Fundación CIDOB, pp. 87–136.

Sánchez, Axel (2015), ‘Empresas lusas buscan alianzas con mexicanas’, El Financiero, 29 June, http://www.elfinanciero.com.mx/empresas/lusasbuscan-alianzas-con-mexicanas.html. Accessed 10 April 2018.

Saner, R. and Yiu, L. (2003), ‘International economic diplomacy: Mutations in postmodern times’, Discussion Papers in Diplomacy, Netherlands Institute of International Relations, Clingendael: University of Leicester, pp. 1–37.

Santos Silva, Augusto (2016), ‘América Latina, Caraibas e Europa: política, cultura e economia’, Conferencia en el Instituto Superior de Relaciones Internacionales del Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores de Cuba, 28 June, http://www.portugal.gov.pt/pt/ministerios/mne/intervencoes/20160628-mneamlat-europa.aspx. Accessed 13 August 2018.

Seixas da Costa, F. (2011), ‘Diplomacia em tempo de crise’ (‘Diplomacy in times of crisis’), Duas ou Três Voisas, duas-ou-tres.blogspot.com/2011/10/. Accessed 10 April 2018.

Serbin, A. (2013), ‘Los nuevos regionalismos y la CELAC: Los retos pendientes’ (‘The new regionalisms and CELAC: The pending challenges’), in A. Bonilla and I. Alvarez Echandi (eds), Desafíos Estratégicos del Regionalismo Contemporáneo: CELAC e Iberoamérica (Strategic Challenges of Contemporary Regionalism: CELAC and Ibero-America), San José, Costa Rica: FLACSO, pp. 47–78.

Sousa, L. de (2013), ‘Repensar a diplomacia económica portuguesa’ (‘Rethinking Portuguese economic diplomacy’), Publico, 31 July, publico.pt/2013/07/31/jornal/repensar-a-diplomacia-economica-portuguesa-26896162. Accessed 10 May 2018.

Sousa, L. de, Magalhães, P. C. and Amaral, L. (2014), ‘Sovereign debt and governance failures Portuguese democracy and the financial crisis’, American Behavioral Scientist, 58:12, pp. 1517–41.

Stoessel, S. (2014), ‘Giro a la izquierda en la América Latina del siglo XXI’ (‘Turn left in 21st century Latin America’), Polis, 39, https://journals.openedition. org/polis/10453. Accessed 25 July 2018.

Tribunal Permanente de Revisión (TPR) (2018), ‘História’ (‘History’), http://tprmercosur.org/es/hist_controv.htm. Accessed 19 June 2018.

WikiLeaks (2006), ‘Socrates’ Brazil trip wins friends, influences no one’, 15 September, https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/06LISBON2002_a.html. Accessed 28 July 2018.

Yakop, Mina and van Bergeijk, Peter A. G. (2009), ‘The weight of economic and commercial diplomacy’, International Institute of Social Studies (ISS) working paper 478, https://ssrn.com/abstract=1469137 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.1469137. Accessed 29 July 2018.

Zelicovich, J. (2014), ‘El desafío de las negociaciones multilaterales de comercio pos-Doha’ (‘The challenge of the multilateral post-Doha trade negotiations’), FLACSO-ISA Joint International Conference, Buenos Aires Global and Regional Powers in a Changing World, University of Buenos Aires, School of Economics, Buenos Aires: FLACSO, 23–25 July, web.isanet.org/Web/Conferences/FLACSO-ISA%20BuenosAires%202014/Archive/303d07f0-4215-4899-ab2d-780ae0a622fc.pdf. Accessed 19 July 2018.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.