Introduction: Spaces of inequality

Renato Miguel Carmo


Several authors have defended the idea that social inequalities are a multidimensional phenomenon. Gorän Therborn’s typology of three major
dimensions – resource, vital and existential inequalities – are well known
(2006). Each of these dimensions is produced by different drivers and
processes, and in most cases they are systemically interconnected. Of course,
in this era of economic and financial globalization, income and wealth are
powerful drivers that are widening the gaps between countries and between
individuals and social groups belonging to the same society (Piketty 2014).
But similar trends are happening in respect of other types of resources, such
as education, knowledge and technology.


Carmo, R. M. and Carvalho, M. (2013), ‘Multiple disparities: Earning inequalities in Lisbon’, Landscape and Geodiversity: Studies of Integrated Geography, 1: 1, pp. 36–45.

Carmo, R. M., Carvalho, M. and Cantante, F. (2015), ‘The persistence of class inequality: The Portuguese Labour force at the turn of the millennium’, Sociological Research Online, 20: 4, p. 16.

Castells, M. (2000), The Information Age: Economy, Society and Culture, Oxford: Blackwell.

Lefebvre, H. (1974), La Production de l’Espace (The Production of Space), Paris: Anthropos.

Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development [OECD] (2015), In It Together: Why Less Inequality Benefits All, Paris: OECD Publishing.

Park, R. E. and Burgess, E. (eds) (1925), The City, Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Piketty, T. (2014), Capital in the Twenty-First Century, Cambridge, MA: The Belknap Press.

Therborn, G. (ed.) (2006), Inequalities of the World: New Theoretical Frameworks, Multiple Empirical Approaches, London: Verso.


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