‘A trick with rebounds’: Portugal, Zambia and the Rhodesian crisis (1967–1968)

Luís Fernando Machado Barroso

Abstract


This article analyses the Portuguese government’s political approach to Zambia between 1967 and 1968. During this time, South Africa was assuming its strategic preponderance in southern Africa while Zambia was the country most affected by the sanctions imposed on Southern Rhodesia. This provided the Portuguese government with an opportunity to persuade the Zambian prime minister Kenneth Kaunda to reject the presence of African liberation movements in Zambia in exchange for transport facilities during the boycott of Southern Rhodesia. However, Kaunda refused to collaborate in this way. Kaunda did not want Portuguese involvement with South Africa and Rhodesia in Angola and Mozambique and sought to offer his good offices in an attempt to end the war in those territories. The firmness of his decision was down to three main reasons: he did not want to be branded a collaborator with the ‘white redoubt’; he did not want Angola and Mozambique to become ‘new Rhodesias’; and he was absolutely sure of the unconditional support of the United Kingdom and the United States.

References


Anglin, D. (1994), Zambian Crisis Behaviour: Confronting Rhodesia’s Unilateral Declaration of Independence, 1965–1966, Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press.

Barroso, L. M. (2009), Salazar e Ian Smith: O Apoio de Portugal à Rodésia (1964–1969)/Salazar and Ian Smith: Portugal’s Support for Rhodesia (1964–1969), Lisbon: Instituto Diplomático do Ministério dos Negócios Estrangeiros.

Barroso, L. M. (2012), Salazar, Caetano e o ‘Reduto Branco’: A Manobra Político-Diplomática de Portugal na África Austral (1951–1974)/Salazar, Caetano and the ‘White Redoubt’: Portugal’s Politico-Diplomatic Maneouvres in East Africa (1951–1974), Oporto: Fronteira do Caos.

DeRoche, A. (2007), ‘Non-alignment on the racial frontier: Zambia and the USA, 1964–68’, Cold War History 2, 7: pp. 227–50.

FRUS (Foreign Relations of the United States) (1964–68a), Vol. XXIV, Africa, Document 500, Washington DC: US Department of State Office of the Historian.

FRUS (Foreign Relations of the United States) (1964–68b), Vol. XXIV, Africa, Document 226, Washington DC: US Department of State Office of the Historian.

Jardim, J. (1976), Moçambique: Terra Queimada/Mozambique: Burnt Land, Lisbon: Intervenção.

Oliveira, P. A. (2007), Os Despojos da Aliança: A Grã-Bretanha e a Questão Colonial Portuguesa 1945–1975/The Remains of an Alliance: Great Britain and the Portuguese Colonial Question 1945–1975, Lisbon: Tinta-da-China.

Roberts, A. (1977), A History of Zambia, London: Heinemann.

Rodrigues, L. N. (2004), ‘Missão impossível: O plano Anderson e a questão colonial portuguesa em 1965’/‘Mission impossible: The Anderson plan and the Portuguese colonial question in 1965’, R:I 1: pp. 99–112

The White Redoubt (1962) [Cover letter entitled ‘Planning Group Meeting, July 10, 1962’ is included], Secret, Report, 6 July, 28 pp., Collection: South Africa.

Themido, J. H. (2008), Uma autobiografia disfarçada/A disguised autobiography, Lisbon: Instituto Diplomático do Ministério dos Negócios Estrangeiros.

Watts, C. P. (2006), ‘The United States, Britain, and the problem of Rhodesian independence, 1964–1965’, Diplomatic History 30, 3: pp. 439–70.

Arquivo da Legação de Portugal em Salisbúria (ALPS) /Archive of the Portuguese Legation in Salisbury

ALPS (13 December 1965), Proc. 1968, Maço 6: Parecer nº 448 da Direção Geral das Obras Públicas e Comunicações do Ministério do Ultramar/Opinion no. 448 from the General Directorate of Public Works and Communications of the Overseas Ministry.

Arquivo Histórico Diplomático do Ministério dos Negócios Estrangeiros (AHDMNE)/Historic Diplomatic Archive of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs

AHDMNE ALPS (12 May 1962), Proc. 1968, Maço 6: Relatório do cônsul-geral de Portugal em Salisbúria/Report of the Portuguese consulate-general in Salisbury.

AHDMNE (25 March 1963), PAA, Proc. 950.17, Maço 884: Minute from the consulate-general in Salisbury.

AHDMNE (8 July 1963), PAA, Proc. 950.17, Maço 884: Informação de Serviço ‘Linhas gerais da situação do problema da Federação das Rodésias e Niassalândia e da Rodésia do Sul antes da Conferência de Victoria Falls em 28 de junho de 1963’/Service information ‘Outline of the situation with the problem of the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland and of Southern Rhodesia before the Victoria Falls conference on 28 June 1963’.

AHDMNE ALPS (4 September 1963), Proc. 1968, Maço 6: Minute from the Portuguese consulate-general in Salisbury.

AHDMNE ALPS (1 December 1964), Proc. 16, Maço 1: Minute from Consulado-Geral de Portugal em Salisbúria/Minute from the Portuguese consulate-general in Salisbury.

AHDMNE ALPS (7 February 1965), Proc. 960.171, Maço 1: Sunday Mail clipping ‘Zambia may use Lobito’.

AHDMNE (1 March 1965), Coleção especial de telegramas secretos e confidenciais, Pasta 159: Telegrama do consulado de Portugal em Salisbúria/Special collection of secret and confidential telegrams, Folder 159: Telegram from the Portuguese consulate in Salisbury.

AHDMNE ALPS (29 June 1965), Proc. 16, Maço 1: Report from joint planning staff to the chiefs of staff committee, Rhodesian armed forces, ‘The military significance of the Zambia-Tanzania railway’.

AHDMNE ALPS (15 October 1965), Proc. 16, Maço 1: Ofício do Ministério do Comércio e Indústria da Zâmbia para Alexandre Pinto Basto/Office of the Zambian Ministry of Commerce and Industry to Alexandre Pinto Basto.

AHDMNE ALPS (21 October 1965), Proc. 16, Maço 1: Letter from Alexandre Pinto Basto to the Overseas Ministry.

AHDMNE ALPS (22 October 1965), Proc. 44.3, Maço 1: Parecer nº 379 do Ministério do Ultramar/Opinion no. 379 from the Overseas Ministry.

AHDMNE ALPS (4 December 1965), Proc. 16, Maço 1: Minute from the Portuguese consulate-general in Salisbury.

AHDMNE ALPS (13 December 1965), Proc. 1968, Maço 6: Parecer nº 448 da Direção Geral das Obras Públicas e Comunicações do Ministério do Ultramar/Opinion no. 448 from the General Directorate of Public Works and Communications of the Overseas Ministry.

AHDMNE (26 January 1966), PAA, Proc. 960.172, Maço 1114: Relatório do SCCI/SCCI report.

AHDMNE ALPS, Proc. 16, Maço 2: Apontamento – Reunião em Pretória com autoridades sul-africanas e rodesianas para troca de informações acerca da Zâmbia em 29 e 30 de junho de 1966/Notes – Meeting in Pretoria with South African and Rhodesian authorities regarding an exchange of information about Zambia, 29–30 June 1966.

AHDMNE (12 November 1966), PAA, Proc. 960.18, Maço 58: Informação 1.093 – SCCI (2).

AHDMNE PAA (24 March 1967), Proc. 950.17, Maço 884: Telegrama do Consulado-Geral em Salisbúria/Telegram from the consulate-general in Salisbury.

AHDMNE ALPS (29 April 1967), Proc. 16, Maço 6: Relatório da PIDE Angola – ‘Situação na Zâmbia’/PIDE Angola report – ‘The situation in Zambia’.

AHDMNE PAA (27 October 1967), Proc. 960.171, Maço 11-A: Telegrama do Ministério dos Negócios Estrangeiros para Embaixada de Portugal em Londres/Telegram from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs to the Portuguese Embassy in London.

AHDMNE PAA (20 November 1967), Proc. 960.171, Maço 11-A: Apontamento para a conversa com o Presidente Kaunda, em Lusaca/Notes of a conversation with President Kaunda in Lusaka.

AHDMNE PAA (21 November 1967), Proc. 960.161, Maço 11-A: Memorandum

AHDMNE PAA (23 November 1967), Proc. 960.171, Maço 11-A: Memorandum

AHDMNE PAA (28 November 1967), Proc. 960.161, Maço 11-A: Note.

AHDMNE PAA (15 December 1967), Proc. 950.171, Maço 886: Ofício da Embaixada de Portugal em Washington/Office of the Portuguese ambassador to Washington.

AHDMNE PAA (29 December 1967), Proc. 960.171, Maço 11-A: Note.

AHDMNE PAA (10 January 1968), Proc. 960.171, Maço 11-A: Telegrama da Embaixada de Portugal em Londres/Telegram from the Portuguese Embassy in London.

AHDMNE PAA (25 January 1968), Proc. 960.171, Maço 11-A: Memorandum.

AHDMNE PAA (9 February 1968), Proc. 960.171, Maço 11-A: Informação de Serviço: Segunda Missão portuguesa à Zâmbia – fevereiro de 1968/Service information: The second Portuguese mission to Zambia.

AHDMNE PAA (16 February 1968), Proc. 960.171, Maço 11-A: Memorandum.

AHDMNE PAA (29 May 1968), Proc. 960.171, Maço 11-A: Sumários das discussões havidas em Nova Iorque em 28 e 29 de maio de 1968/Summaries of discussions that took place in New York on 28–29 May 1968.

AHDMNE PAA (2 October 1968), Proc. 960.171, Maço 11-A: Letter from Alexandre Pinto Basto to Kenneth Kaunda.

AHDMNE PAA (22 October 1968), Proc. 960.171, Maço 11-A: Apontamento

AHDMNE PAA (23 November 1968), Proc. 960.171, Maço 11-A: Carta de Kaunda para Marcelo Caetano/Letter from Kaunda to Marcelo Caetano.

AHDMNE PAA (5 December 1968), Proc. 960.171, Maço 11-A: Carta de Marcelo Caetano para Kaunda.

AHDMNE PAA Proc. 960.18, Maço 1132.

National Archives of South Africa/Department of Foreign Affairs Archives

NASA/DFA (14 August 1964), BTS, Box 1/14/3 Vol. 1: Meeting between Harold Taswell and Salazar.

NASA/DFA (21 December 1966), BTS, Box 1/14/3 Vol. 237: Letter from the consul of South Africa in Luanda to the South African Foreign Affairs Office.

South Africa National Documentation Centre Department of Defence Archives

SANDC/DDA (23 July 1968), LB.MVV-P.W. Botha, GRP 2, Box 23, MV56-4 SA Army-Portugal Vol. 1.13: Memorandum of a meeting between General Fraser, General Câmara Pina and Minister Gomes Araújo.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.